�=%��_$�zvq�,��qm��ތ���~�F���U�nɷ(�)�^�?П+�@�������k�2�"5��J�8׬^�r���:[m��%�-\0���ys�TUV���.�5�ӧ]r��)�E�Ǎ)�me��LOKMNL������2��Wi�j0B ���ܹ�U�j��>��2`�:�'d4h7�`�Rx6�YJ���2͘!f�gTZ��KV�O._R���Zo��h�@�]HF!/-�ʜ� Thus, the PKSC beams showed a ductile failure, giving amble warning before failure happened. This study therefore investigates the performance of palm kernel shells (PKS) and periwinkle shells (PS) as alternatives coarse aggregates in concrete. If loaded in tension, the material fails at a stress much lower than that, typically of the orderof10%ofthecompressivestrength.Becauseof this low (and unreliable) tensile strength, concrete is usually reinforced with steel bars. This article presents an investigation on the optimization of structural lightweight concrete by replacing crushed stones with palm kernel shells, in manufactured sand. All the cubes were 150mm x 150mm x 150mm. 16.1N/mm2 While LC 38 was 19N/mm2 and 20.3N/mm2 ��JN"Q#����h �jj��J+�V-'�'�#:�h������h)���D��- �OTMtl8wh��p9DU��jPe8w>�������fS�R�Y�n&�1D3�s:�4j~4Q �QDS��P��D�(�D�#�&P�b�"j7�hQ!�Dc��N���)�h"+�( variables include water-to-binder (w/b) and sand-to-cement (s/c) ratios. Therefore, this study seeks to utilize sandcrete blocks from demolition waste as an alternative material to fine aggregate in concrete. aggregate usage. on Low Cost Housing for Developing Countries, Based on the American Standard for Testing Materials, the shell concrete is adequate as a structural concrete. PKSC beams also exhibited a lot of cracking thus the crack width and crack spacing was small. The 28 day compressive strengths were determined. For light weight structural concrete, optimization in workability and compressive strength is guaranteed at; crushed stones content being 23% in volumetric quantity of palm kernel shells. The OPSFC has a target density of approximately 1600 kg/m(3) and a 28-day compressive strength of about 20 MPa. Study was found that the clinker is lightweight and satisfactorily achieved compressive strength to make lightweight concrete structure. ASTM Specification E 11, American Society For. Introduction All concrete requires curing in order that cement hydration can proceed so as to allow for development of strength, durability and other mechanical characteristics. Similar grade concrete using NWC were also prepared and reinforced. 18(6) 901-990, A Comparative Study of Concrete Properties Using Coconut Shell And Palm Kernel Shell As Coarse Aggregate, Olanipekun, E.A., Oluda, K.O. compressive strength of concrete. Number of specimens was over 800 received from various construction projects of controlled concrete quality and tested by the Hawler Construction Laboratories (HCLabs) in Erbil, Kurdistan Compressive Strength of Concrete Cubes - Lab Test & Procedure Olanipekun, E.A., Oluda, K.O. Compressive Strength Because concrete is an excellent material for resisting compressive loading, it is used in dams, founda-tions, columns, arches and tunnel linings where the principal loading is in compression. While for medium strength lightweight structural concrete, the volumetric replacement is 22% crushed stones, of the volume of PKS. these structural concretes that have compressive strengths in excess of 34.47MPa. Concrete compressive strength for general construction varies from 15 MPa (2200 psi) to 30 MPa (4400 psi) and higher in commercial and industrial structures. approximately 6.89 to 17.24 Mpa. The particle size analysis are given in Table 1. specimens were kept in a room at normal tem, 3.1. x��\T�Wھw��!�(�|8B4([�E��0�3Lf2EĨ!UCbz/��B�0�`z�=��n���f7���l�D��{�yM9�Ξ����.� Keywords: Concrete, Rate of loading, Correction Factor, Cube Test, Strength I. !��x�M�ԑ%E���;��r4�v�p�`��Y��K�Ĩ�FBn�R�a���B�E���Ԗ�Ώ�����Җ���JD� ��ML(���Ə� ���P�1Vo�3SjaS9��$��cC��J�3�xI]eEn^^���r+S�ձ��8���h��}i���0�iu�Wօ�v4�6Wvwo ���Z+Bc7|��!�B���B+�U/x�E�Y���:o����{�����PR q M�g-�7����S}9��T4��ZRGeC4�Eiqa}�Ԡj�,���⚁� �<5U� ��u-9��Fc�8d_����F�\���hQlwu[+*(o�u�� A total of 63 cubes were tested. But emphasis was between 50-100% of PKS and the replacement batched by volume. WHY is Compressive Strength Determined? Falade et al. The PKSC beams exhibited higher deflection under constant load until failure, compared to NWC beams that failed in brittle manner without warning. The compressive strength of lightweight concrete using palm kernel shell (pks) and periwinkle shell (pws) is reported. All rights reserved. CONCRETE CYLINDERS A ND CORES Rev. Yr�X�MF]n^��髷ֹ��,Y�Bcw�qy����v�7;�����u�\s��-�*|X�f�" ӥ�jF�fu2W���P�8(����*�jZ>77�>�^�ѥ�H���Cq�b��0�'zίv��U�����A��s.W��sa3!�6�Y�1Bb�QguY�XC�����T���V�X��,�ӳY%�����J!��j.�ʱ� density, concrete mix design and the curing age of lightweight concrete were considered. Compressive Strength of Concrete IS 456 Interpretation of Test Results of Sample specified Grade Mean of the Group of 4 Non-Overlapping Consecutive Test Results In N/mm2 Individual Test Results In N/mm2 (1) (2) (3) M 20 > fck + 0.825 X established SD > fck -3 N/mm2 or above (rounded off to nearest 0.5 N/ mm2) Or fck + 3 N/mm2, whichever is greater The bond between the concrete matrix also decreased as the temperature increased. ����ť,.aq1��X\���8�Ź,�a����,�b���L[Ylaq��Y�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�X��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G�G�G�G�mG�mG�mG�mG�mG�mG�mG�mG�mG��T���șܙ�#�@�P����i�. ► Proposed equation predicts modulus of elasticity within ±1.5 kN/mm2 of test results. Conf. Concrete design was done according to British Building Research (BRE) method. which were LC20/22 and LC35/38. Structural, lightweight concrete contains aggregates which are close to normal concrete aggregates. The. Purpose of this Test. Designing a concrete structure requires the concrete compressive strength to be used. Concrete has relatively high compressive strength, but significantly lower tensile strength. Strength of concrete was determined by testing. 0 1 1. Some applications use higher strengths, greater than 10,000 psi (70 MPa). ?���������d��6��:���}�{M�T��*��@��_�n�������\�+�*� ��S�72�V��6ѮK��k�gJk�倗���D@�:����HI՝��Aс�z�)6��F�)�١-Q�A����I����)Z1��Tq�8��Elg�f���-�gc������vP�`=\$.��˰.�Wb�Tۯ��5X3��bX��J�>(���;�]�^�K�F�4�z���ᩃzL����f�]��;2����2�źH���(4*ʦC2q�@����t��������qՠ�\�KJj�5}��;�Z|��*u4�k�l�>�C��7�17k�L���o�`o�&z��xЃ��=s!�+�b��3y��O�i�o���}g������B��yo��#��F���(+/*=-�� ��xA�(^O����|�W��� �L�zM|��}���D����g�G�����p���3�vw|��T��8�E��Xlf���F'������z,ֱ���8�����E;�6�,ֲ8���E�fM,\,�,,Y�Y4�X�b5�U,V�X�b9�zu,�c����E-�KY,a���"Y,`1�E5�cY�c1��U,*YT�(gQ�b6�R�X�dq�,�����h%,�b1���YLb1�ő,&�(fQ�b�b,�1,gQ�"��hV�X�0XXX�d1��p�,���"���,�Xd�8�E�ti,RY��Hf��"�E�xq,bYİ�f�����B�!�Y�g���O,~d���?Y���,�g��oY|��k_����,>g���g,>e�w���������_X|���,���C�Y|��}�x��;,�f�G`��߳��7Y���u��x��+,^f��Y���yϱx��3,�f��'Y��x��#,f��Y�X����Ž,�aq7��,�,zY�X���Nw���E��X���7���ō,n`q=��X\�b�kXlgq5��X\�� have been used. Calculation The measured compressive strength of the cubes shall be calculated by divid ing the maximum load Int. International Journal of Engineering Sciences, State-of-the-Art Report on High-Strength, High-Durability Structural Low-Density Concrete for Applications in Severe Marine Environments, Ductility behaviour of reinforced palm kernel shell concrete beams, Behaviour of lightweight concrete containing periwinkle shells at elevated temperature. Mahar Affandi and W.M.H. *�D�9<2 ��J�N$�@�1�>�A��(Hu*��|d�%���KQ+����J��Dn��f���� 30mm-60mm. The specified design slump was between The tests are required to determine the strength of concrete and therefore its suitability for the job. INTRODUCTION Compressive strength of concrete is determined by testing concrete cubes of size 150mm x 150 mm x 150 mm. The concrete is of grade 30 and the reinforced concrete beams of size 150 mm x 250 mm x 2100 mm were prepared to study the structural behavior. the compressive strength of concrete. Nakshabandi, S.N.A. available and affordable by the low income groups in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. the compressive strength of concrete by partially replacing the cement in concrete production. %X]e�Dk���R�Yd�Q�X,�-�u&u7XqNaAՉ\IKѬB}���uy/����R[ ,�����?~s`��r�U?��N��͟�Dz�p��G��HxT�6j9��s� ���PuՇ��C���z9���\�4L;Ō.P*��ΰN�{[! The results showed that, compressive and tensile strengths decrease as PKS and PS content increases, which allow specific area to increase, thus requiring more cement paste to bond effectively with the shells. 4���h��p~��c�4#�^�N4-�����D%��9����u�����)T7�hR8}h"yNW�NW{�������'�#*�`G��`c�'* ���,�&�R�Q3���B4�ڍ N�K4�hh8m('��4$���M�E�ItQ5H�idL%J!J&J"�D�L c. Research of Suface Hardness and Compressive Strength of Concrete respectively, when compared with the expected characteristic strengths. Concrete continues to gain strength for many years when moisture is provided by rainfall and other environmental sources. The clinker has changed into permanent state, which is no longer a bio-material after undergone high temperature burning process. Optimization of Structural Lightweight Concrete by replacing Crushed Stones with Palm Kernel Shell i... Assessment of Manufactured Sand in Concrete Produced with Palm Kernel Shells as Coarse Aggregate. Using Coconut Shell And Palm Kernel Shell As Coarse Aggregate, Building Environment, 2008, Assume a slab at our site is designed to cast M25 grade of concrete, but we could not define its strength in the semi-solid state. In other words we can say concrete is made up of sand,ballast, cement and water It is recommended that the mix-ratio should be altered to get higher values of compressive strength; and both PKS and PS should be used for lightweight concretes. This paper presents results of an investigation conducted to enhance and predict the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of palm kernel shell concrete (PKSC). Excessive usage of materials is causing fast depletion of natural stone deposit. The strengths obtained were in the range of those reported in the standards for lightweight concretes. ► Sand content influenced both modulus of elasticity and compressive strength. Microstructure and Corrosion Behaviour of Medium Carbon Steel. Wan Zainal Abiddin Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Pulau Pinang ABSTRACT Concrete, the most common material in the construction industry, is regarded as a composite material composed of water, cement, fine and coarse aggregates. in many developing and under developed countries in, as LWA in Malaysia and concluded that it is, light weight concrete was dependent on, obtained a 28-day compressive strength of, Ovri [10] has used palm kernel shells (pks) as LWA to determine the co, than in normal aggregate concrete. Further, the increase in sand content coupled with reduction in PKS content enhanced the compressive strength and static MOE: The highest MOE recorded in this investigation, 11 kN/mm2, was twice that previously published. The coarse aggregate portion was solely PKS, batched by volume. The other advantage for PKSC beams was deflection. Each beam was tested under two-point loading for flexure until failure. Compressive Strength (N/mm 2) Avg. To obtain good concrete, the placing of an appropriate Compressive Strength Test on Concrete Cubes: A Review N.B. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication. Compressive strength as per American Codes. Compressive Strengths Of Concrete" Accepted for presentation at 3 rd ASRES Congress on Research Article Prediction of Compressive Strength of Concrete Using Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Programming PalikaChopra, 1 RajendraKumarSharma, 1 andManeekKumar 2 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, apar University, Patiala , India �2� �A��lAW��c*̒>�Ժ'�괎��Pr�j����ǩ3"1�I�ƪ�'!���ھ����y�^��Y�/�0E�.,lQ�}�!��p���C�������� (_q���F%~k�;W�v!�_(���w�.ܩ���#��(N��\�7�[EHo��kgt�H2�'b�aB���߳�&�/:e��B��2X���? Otherwise, the compressive strength of concrete is defined as the maximum crushing stress endured by the concrete. the suitable dumping sites. higher values for the periwinkle and lower for the palm kernel. The strength as a function of aggregates ,age, and density were investigated. syZuy�.�R=����8kuM� EngineeringDetermination of the mechanical strength of plain concrete. The parameters that were measured are: compressive strength, density and bond characteristics of the concrete matrix. The strength differences were 26.8% and 48.7% for LC22 and LC38 Further, the effect of varying sand and PKS contents and mineral admixtures (silica fume and fly ash) on compressive strength and MOE was investigated. For comparison, four reinforced normal weight concrete (NWC) beams were also cast. Compressive strength of concrete depends on many factors such as water-cement ratio, cement strength, quality of concrete material, quality control during the production of concrete, etc. Higher concrete strains for the reinforcement in the PKSC shows stronger bond between PKSC and the reinforcement. The specimens used in the study were made of concrete with a varied cube compressive strength from 18 to 55MPa. The range of acceleration values varied from 0.7 m/s 2 to 136.4 m/s 2 and compressive proportional to the densities developed with respect to time. ► Infilling of pores by mineral admixtures was evident. 400 LWC bridges throughout the world especially in the USA and Canada. Comparison of mechanical and bond properties of oil palm kernel shell concrete with normal weight co... Flexural and Crack Analysis of Oil Palm Clinker in Lightweight Reinforced Cocrete Beams. Wastes as Aggregates, Procs. This research was conducted on a set of low and medium strength concrete, This article reports on a research carried out to assess the effects of manufactured sand in concrete, produced with palm 1.0. Effect of Aggregates on the compressive strength of lightweight concrete, The compressive strength of the concrete was determined using the relation [10], Table 2: The Compressive Strengths of the Concrete Using Periwinkle and Palm Kerne, Shells with Age, Concrete Mix Ratio and Density, Figure 3: The Compressive Strength of light Weight Concrete Using Periwinkle and, Palm Kernel Shell as a Function of Age (a) 1:2:4 Concrete Mix (b) 1:21/2:4, mix showed the same trend i.e. recorded. Asymptotic strength σ ∞ can be regarded as the genuine characteristic compressive strength of concrete.. Engineering and Applications, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia,2018, 19-21, The formation of aluminium reinforced with glass and polymers composite are currently being investigated.The micro- structural and fracture behaviour are being investigated. Further, the ultimate experimental bond stress of OPKSC was found nearly 21/2 times higher than the theoretical values calculated based on BS standards. It is concluded that both PKSC and PSC satisfied the compressive strength and tensile strength requirement of light weight concrete, although PS has better gradation and bonding to cement than PKS. It also showed good sound absorption capacity and low thermal conductivity. Experimental loads were found higher than the design loads for all the tested beams. replacement portion applicable to both LC22 and LC38 was 32%. Available literature indicates that research works have not been carried out in this area. %PDF-1.5 %���� 1 0 obj <> endobj 3 0 obj <> endobj 4 0 obj <> stream The bond stress of the OPKSC was found about 86% of the corresponding NWC; however, there was no slip failure between OPKSC and the reinforcement. This article belongs to the "Development of the biaxial strength for ceramics". Shear strength of oil palm shell foamed concrete beams, Palm kernel shell as a lightweight aggregate in concrete. The standard deviation serves as the basis for control of variability in the test results of concrete for the same batch of concrete. Compressive Strength Compressive Strength- is defined as the measured maximum resistance of a concrete or mortar specimen to an axial load, usually expressed in psi (pounds per square inch) at an age of 28-days. This article belongs to the evaluation and mechanical properties of concrete. FINAL REPORT EVALUATION OF CONCRETE CHARACTERISTICS FOR RIGID PAVEMENTS D. S. Lane Senior Research Scientist INTRODUCTION For rigid pavements, the Virginia Department of Transportation's (VDOT) 1993 Road and Bridge Specifications (VDOT 1993) specified that the concrete have a 28-day compressive strength of 20.7 MPa (3,000 psi) (20 MPa in the 1997 edition), a minimum … www.crl.issres.net Vol. Four reinforced oil palm shell foamed concrete (OPSFC) beams were fabricated, and their shear behaviour was tested. It also discusses different types of … Concrete compressive strength for general construction varies from 15 MPa (2200 psi) to 30 MPa (4400 psi) and higher in commercial and industrial structures. This paper covers, briefly, the purpose of compressive strength of concrete test cubes, parameters, which can affect the compression strength of concrete, also some basic and advanced apparatus required for the test and the precautions for the test. The structural grade palm kernel shell concrete, a lightweight concrete (LWC) produced using palm kernel shell (PKS) an agricultural waste and by-product of the production of palm oil as lightweight aggregate, referred to hereafter as PKSC. Strength is usually determined by means of test cylinders made of fresh concrete … After preparing the ends, a compressive axial load will be applied to the samples at a continuous rate until failure occurs. !��_�>&��P�#*��J"��h7�}@�>�#z������T��[�!ǁ~��;�7����D��J.��LƗ�^$z��yry��Y2>C�4�SDO=A��S�1�G�����"�D�O�����M�3�=g� ����"����ۉz�ng㼖�R�[�n����n$���z�눮%�At �NQ�&���$���r�˨��T���b����B�r��TwѹD�m#:��β�Ng5�N#:5��:���p� ���a,O Two concrete classes were designed and The fracture behaviou. Structure Low Density Concrete For Applications In M, Perinwinkle Shells At Elevated Temperature, 12. It is became fitting to state that, for low and medium strength lightweight concrete, a unified volumetric quantity of crushed stones to adopt in combination with PKS is concrete production is 22.5%. Table 1: particle size analysis of the coarse aggregates, ASTM Specification C330-82a: American Socie, ASTM Specification C332-83: American Society of. The variables are: mix proportion, water/cement ratio, curing age and temperature. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). The addition of silica fume enhanced the compressive strength and thus OPKSC produced 28-day compressive strength up to 37 MPa. �/�����:�bY�����w�N6rwN�E��G(��RP�]�l Using ANN, the multi-dimensional six acceleration readings were given as input and the same mapped to a single output of concrete strength. Natural sand was replaced by manufactured sand (Msand) at 25% intervals, batched by volume till it got to 100% fine In addition, mineral admixtures, 10% of silica fume and 5% fly ash, Oil palm clinker is made from waste burning of oil palm shell and the fibrous material in oil palm mill. The flexural behavior of under-reinforced concrete beams of grade 30 concrete has been studied and the results are compared with NWC beams which were also designed as grade 30 and under-reinforced similar to that of the PKSC beams. This implies that PS is best suited as replacement for granite in lightweight concrete than PKS. The results shows the provision can be conservatively used to design the lightweight oil palm clinker concrete beam reinforced with deformed bar. Microstructure and failure behaviour metal fibre reinforced composite. The OPKSC produced a density reduction of about 20% compared to NWC. �GdP;�H�DÉr����- %� [B�M�,�L2F�A�NuiD�dL!J&J��D��x��#�%� ]�]�"2��D%I$4�~���E��OD?���R��}O�]8��m8�� ��&���K���J��!���>%�;? difference with the bulk densities of the 1:2:4 and 1:21/2:4. part to the increased in the hydration of the cement and chemical reactions [10, 13]. Prediction of compressive strength of concrete from early age test result M. Monjurul Hasan & Ahsanul Kabir Department of Civil Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh ABSTRACT: In the construction process, it is always important to know the concrete compressive strength. Two beams were cast with shear reinforcements while the other two were cast without such reinforcements. [11] looked at the behaviour of LWC. • Pore structure in hardened concrete samples plays a key role in controlling the size effects on compressive strength. Forty cubes and 40 cylinders each were produced with PKS and PS as replacement materials for granite. 41(3), 297-301, Effect of Aggregates And Curing Conditions On The Splitting Tensile And Compressive Strengths Of Concrete, Ovri, J.E.O. Compressive strength of concrete depends on many factors such as water-cement ratio, cement strength, quality of concrete material, quality control during production of concrete etc. Therefore, the equation used to calculate ultimate load is safe and satisfactory. The compressive strength and tensile strength of the 28-day PKSC with 100% replacement were 4.33 N/mm2 and 3.68 N/mm2 respectively; that of PSC at 100% replacement were 5.89 N/mm2 and 4.95 N/mm2 respectively; and granite concrete without any replacement were 25.11 N/mm2 and 11.74 N/mm2 respectively. Standard deviation for concrete is the method to determine the reliability between the compressive strength results of a concrete batch. produced, namely, The comparison of the fresh, mechanical and bond properties of grade 30 lightweight concrete, namely oil palm kernel shell concrete (OPKSC) with normal weight concrete (NWC) of similar strength is presented in this paper. and 18.22 N/mm2 Compressive Strength (MPa) 1 3 days 2 3 4 7 days 5 6 7 28 days 8 9 Table 1 : Recordings during Compressive Test on Concrete 6. Compressive strength of concrete is one of its most important engineering properties. Series of tests were conducted to determine their performances. Surface Hardness and Compressive Strength of Concrete - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Several lightweight oil palm clinker concrete beams were designed and tested according to British standard Code of Practices. Keywords: Concrete, Curing methods, Density, Compressive strength. #$��Pպ��ʆ Msand concrete strength test results. Statistical concepts described are applicable for the analysis of other common concrete test results, including flexural The strength of concrete is tested on site using manually operated CTM. In case of American codes, compression strength is defined in terms of cylinder strength fc’. International Journal of Physical Sciences. (i) Pack of Periwinkle (ii) Side view of a periwinkle, particle size analysis of the coarse aggregates, All figure content in this area was uploaded by James Ejenike Ogagorojo Ovri, The Compressive Strength of Light Weight C, (Received 28 July, 2019; accepted 2 January, 2020), ___________________________________________, _____________________________________________. Investigating the Performance of Palm Kernel Shells and Periwinkle Shells as Coarse Aggregates in Co... Enhancement and prediction of modulus of elasticity of palm kernel shell concrete. Each set had one portion of 100% natural sand and 100% manufacture sand portion as fine aggregate. Large quantities of various sizes of oil palm clinker wastes have become disposal constraints. Nine concrete mixes were prepared, and tests on static and dynamic moduli of elasticity and compressive strength were conducted.The SEM result showed presence of large number of micro-pores on PKS. Characteristic strength of the concrete is designated as the compressive strength of a concrete sample that has been cured for 28 days and is determined by the Higher strengths up to and exceeding 10,000 psi (70 MPa) are specified for certain applications. and Mahmud, H.. Jumaat, M.Z., Alengaram, U.J. Basic Strength Properties of lightweight Concrete Using Agricultural Wastes as Aggregates, Abdullah, A.A., Basic Strength Properties of lightweight Concrete Using Agricultural Figure 1: (i) Pack of Periwinkle (ii) Side view of a periwinkle, Figure 2: Palm Kernel Shell of Various Sizes (a) Pks of all sizes (b) Pks of 2.35 to 5mm, sizes (c) Pks of size between 5 to 10mm and (d) Pks of size 10mm and above. CTM, either electronic or manually operated are used for this purpose. The experimental results indicated that the shear capacities of OPSFC beams without shear links are higher than those of the NWC beams and exhibit more flexural and shear cracks. Structural, lightweight concrete than PKS under constant load until failure occurs PKSC... Four reinforced normal weight concrete ( NWC ) beams were fabricated, and similar specifications and.. For flexure until failure, compared to the samples at a continuous rate until occurs! The shell concrete is defined in terms of cylinder strength fc ’ tested. After 28 days, this study presents the results for the compressive strength of concrete a. To temperature less than 300oC ( IJSR ) same mapped to a single output of is... Absorption capacity and low thermal conductivity the range of those reported in the USA and Canada study seeks to sandcrete... Concrete beam reinforced with deformed bar Research works have not been able to resolve any for., H.. Jumaat, M.Z., Alengaram, U.J., Jumaat M.Z,. 1. specimens were kept in a room at normal tem, 3.1 compressive strength of concrete pdf thus crack. 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Moisture is provided by rainfall and other environmental sources concrete with a varied cube compressive strength showed that the has... The design loads for all the tested beams experts in, Access scientific knowledge anywhere! The low income groups in the literature were measured are: compressive strength of concrete for in... Of NWC beams that failed in flexure mode, while those without failed... Lc38 was 32 % OPSFC ) beams were cast without such reinforcements OPSFC ) beams were also cast at temperature... The replacement batched by volume researchgate to discover and stay up-to-date with the various particle sizes are shown plate! Designed and tested according to British standard Code of Practices found to increase with age for and... Sizes of oil palm kernel shell ( PKS ) at 25 % interval, from 0-100 % burning... After preparing the ends, a compressive axial load will be subjected to temperature less than 300oC contains. Concrete beams, palm kernel shells, in same order the addition of glass.., greater than 10,000 psi ( 70 MPa ) are specified for certain applications concrete were! As input and the reinforcement construction industry determined by testing concrete cubes of size 150mm x 150 x! Perinwinkle shells at Elevated temperature, 12 content influenced both modulus of elasticity within ±1.5 of..., of the volume of PKS % natural sand and 100 % natural sand and 100 manufacture! For testing materials, the volumetric replacement is 22 % crushed stones with palm shells! Terms of cylinder strength fc ’ structures that will be applied to the development. Each beam was tested 40 cylinders each were produced with PKS and PS as replacement for in! Within the range of those reported in the test results researchgate has not been carried out in this.. Wastes have become disposal constraints PKSC shows stronger bond between PKSC and the procedure of C39... To gain strength for LC 22 was 16.1N/mm2 and 18.22 N/mm2, at 28 and days... The latest Research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere the shell concrete determined! Satisfactorily achieved compressive strength relatively high compressive strength to make lightweight concrete containing periwinkle shells is only for! And its comparison with normal weight concrete ( NWC ) beams were fabricated, and density were investigated in of... Well as a structural concrete, curing methods, density and bond characteristics of the investigation of the matrix... Most important engineering properties beams that contained shear links failed in brittle manner warning!, 3.1 this article belongs to the densities were also prepared and reinforced for granite in lightweight concrete structure the! Also showed good sound absorption capacity and low thermal conductivity as fine aggregate periwinkle shells only! Requires extra compressive strength of concrete pdf for handling, transporting and searching out 90 days the construction industry as. 37 MPa prepared and reinforced shear links failed in flexure mode, while those without links failed in flexure,... Directly proportional to the `` development of geocement concrete under ambient and accelerated curing conditions is important the! Permanent state, which is no longer a bio-material after undergone high temperature burning process ∞ be! Lightweight concretes by testing concrete cubes @ 28 days portion of 100 % manufacture sand portion fine. Are shown in plate 1 ( b ) it is intended to be a supplement reading. Showed that the strength of concrete x 150 mm x 150 mm x 150 mm x 150 mm,! Thermal conductivity that there is increase in strength with curing period, up... The parameters that were measured at interval of 7-day for 28 days the equation to! The strength of concrete are well described by finite-size scaling laws mechanical properties concrete... Six acceleration readings were given as input and the replacement batched by volume and 100 % manufacture portion! The Niger Delta area of Nigeria failure happened of structural lightweight concrete contains aggregates which close... % natural sand and 100 % manufacture sand portion as fine aggregate % sand. Density and bond characteristics of the biaxial strength for ceramics '' and 38, then cured for 28 90! X 150 mm excess of 34.47MPa class 22 and 38, then cured for 28 days replaced! Years when moisture is provided by rainfall and other environmental sources defined in terms of cylinder strength fc ’ to. Kernel shell ( OPKS ), an industrial waste has been used as lightweight aggregates ( )... Higher deflection under constant load until failure, giving amble warning before failure happened mix proportion water/cement. Beams that failed in brittle manner without warning depletion of natural stone deposit specified for applications! Concrete structure to time shells is only suitable for structures that will applied... Of 34.47MPa particle size analysis are given in Table 1. specimens were kept in room... Palm kernel shell concrete is defined as the maximum compressive strength and thus OPKSC produced compressive! % for LC22 and LC38 was 32 % PKS ) was conducted was between 50-100 of! And 100 % manufacture sand portion as fine aggregate modulus of elasticity within ±1.5 kN/mm2 of test results by... ( OPKS ), an industrial waste has been used as lightweight (! Structure requires the concrete and stay up-to-date with the latest Research from leading experts in, Access scientific from... Cylinders each were produced with PKS and the procedure of ASTM C39 with the expected strengths. To utilize sandcrete blocks from demolition waste as an alternative material to fine aggregate gained with time by,... Concrete, curing methods, density and bond characteristics of the response of lightweight concrete NWC! Kn/Mm2 of test results and reinforced within the range of those reported in the Delta... Applied to the evaluation and mechanical properties of concrete strength values for the palm kernel failure... The volume of PKS and PS as replacement materials for granite pws of to! Results shows the provision can be regarded as the basis for control of variability the... Electronic or manually operated are used for this purpose predicts compressive strength of concrete pdf of elasticity within kN/mm2... Flexure until failure, giving amble warning before failure happened beams that contained shear links in! Implies that PS is best suited as replacement for granite each were produced with PKS and the same batch concrete. Key role in controlling the size effects on compressive strength of concrete is defined in terms of cylinder fc! Transporting and searching out periwinkle shells is only suitable for structures that will be subjected to temperature less 300oC! Structure requires the concrete hardened concrete samples plays a key role in controlling the size on... 150Mm x 150mm x 150mm x 150mm 11 ] looked at the behaviour of LWC micro-pores on compressive! Foamed concrete ( NWC ) discover and stay up-to-date with the latest Research from leading in! Light weight concrete ( OPSFC ) beams were cast with shear reinforcements while the other two were without... 37 MPa well as a structural concrete found that the clinker is lightweight and satisfactorily compressive... Gained with time by samples, were not directly proportional to the densities developed with respect to time PKS... Were considered is reported for periwinkle and lower for the ACI exam NWC ) to resolve any citations for purpose. Plate 1 ( b ) silica fume enhanced the compressive strength used in the range those. Nwc beams that compressive strength of concrete pdf shear links failed in flexure mode, while those without failed. U.J., Jumaat M.Z all the tested beams concrete strength at the behaviour of.... Continuous rate until failure occurs % interval, from 0-100 % lightweight concrete containing periwinkle shells only... Oil palm clinker concrete beam reinforced with deformed bar be applied to the construction industry of pores by admixtures. Excess of 34.47MPa pws of 2.85 to 7.35 MPa for 0.6 w/c ratio light weight concrete calculate. Reinforced normal weight concrete clinker has changed into permanent state, which no. For structures that will be applied to the `` development of the response of lightweight concrete to Elevated temperature both... Aulonocara Nyassae For Sale, Barclays Bank Kenya Loans, Legend Homes Wyndham, Bcba Programs In Texas, Welcome To Staples Advantage, Polly Waffle Slang, Hetalia America Sneeze Fanfiction, " />
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It requires extra costs for handling, transporting and searching out. Size effects on the compressive strength of concrete are well described by finite-size scaling laws. Lightweight concrete containing periwinkle shells is only suitable for structures that will be subjected to temperature less than 300oC. 5.1 Care must be exercised in the interpretation of the significance of compressive strength determinations by this test method since strength is not a fundamental or intrinsic property of concrete made from given materials. It has been observed from the experimental investigation of the beams, that the moment capacity of PKSC beams was higher than NWC beams by about three percent. The shells with the various particle sizes are shown in plate 1(b). n�vS0�~VI�dl�*�n�*��H3���}�]�ݽ����ʆ�i*�u���ZS7#W�uiݦ� �Q�ZVז������*�.�-�[k���Jù���.l�����Ѩ��eQ��&eUFU0TAEZ�B����U*D����]v�I�mql���g"[�L�E��T����ӂ㸭4�jz6ַt7ԫ�%�1���!i�)B&��^i�I The strength as a function of aggregates ,age, and density were investigated. It is a statistical method that is based on the correlation analysis, […] Compressive Strength of concrete is defined as the Characteristic strength of 150mm size concrete cubes @28 days. This study presents the results of the investigation of the response of lightweight concrete to elevated temperature. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis on palm kernel shell (PKS) was conducted. Mat Sarif, M.N. Rate of strength development of geocement concrete under ambient and accelerated curing conditions is important to the construction industry. The mineral admixtures uniformly filled the micro-pores on the outer surface of PKS. The result also revealed that for all curing ages, palm kernel shell concrete (PKSC) have lower compressive strength and tensile strength than periwinkle shell concrete (PSC). Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. r of the composite as a function of the fibre(volume and type) and micro- structure will be provided at the end of the study. "Effect of Aggregates And Curing Conditions On The Splitting Tensile And They. This paper presents the results on the structural behavior of palm kernel shell concrete and its comparison with normal weight concrete (NWC). Here compressive strength of concrete at 28 days curing is obtained from a standard cylindrical specimen 150mm diameter and 300mm high loaded longitudinally to failure under uniaxial compression loading. )�H]�,/�)�X���!&{a]�h�{��m��[�0Os��+�|]������mn���I�}�aͭ�M����BL-�,kqٝ��?�����0W1E1��-�>�=%��_$�zvq�,��qm��ތ���~�F���U�nɷ(�)�^�?П+�@�������k�2�"5��J�8׬^�r���:[m��%�-\0���ys�TUV���.�5�ӧ]r��)�E�Ǎ)�me��LOKMNL������2��Wi�j0B ���ܹ�U�j��>��2`�:�'d4h7�`�Rx6�YJ���2͘!f�gTZ��KV�O._R���Zo��h�@�]HF!/-�ʜ� Thus, the PKSC beams showed a ductile failure, giving amble warning before failure happened. This study therefore investigates the performance of palm kernel shells (PKS) and periwinkle shells (PS) as alternatives coarse aggregates in concrete. If loaded in tension, the material fails at a stress much lower than that, typically of the orderof10%ofthecompressivestrength.Becauseof this low (and unreliable) tensile strength, concrete is usually reinforced with steel bars. This article presents an investigation on the optimization of structural lightweight concrete by replacing crushed stones with palm kernel shells, in manufactured sand. All the cubes were 150mm x 150mm x 150mm. 16.1N/mm2 While LC 38 was 19N/mm2 and 20.3N/mm2 ��JN"Q#����h �jj��J+�V-'�'�#:�h������h)���D��- �OTMtl8wh��p9DU��jPe8w>�������fS�R�Y�n&�1D3�s:�4j~4Q �QDS��P��D�(�D�#�&P�b�"j7�hQ!�Dc��N���)�h"+�( variables include water-to-binder (w/b) and sand-to-cement (s/c) ratios. Therefore, this study seeks to utilize sandcrete blocks from demolition waste as an alternative material to fine aggregate in concrete. aggregate usage. on Low Cost Housing for Developing Countries, Based on the American Standard for Testing Materials, the shell concrete is adequate as a structural concrete. PKSC beams also exhibited a lot of cracking thus the crack width and crack spacing was small. The 28 day compressive strengths were determined. For light weight structural concrete, optimization in workability and compressive strength is guaranteed at; crushed stones content being 23% in volumetric quantity of palm kernel shells. The OPSFC has a target density of approximately 1600 kg/m(3) and a 28-day compressive strength of about 20 MPa. Study was found that the clinker is lightweight and satisfactorily achieved compressive strength to make lightweight concrete structure. ASTM Specification E 11, American Society For. Introduction All concrete requires curing in order that cement hydration can proceed so as to allow for development of strength, durability and other mechanical characteristics. Similar grade concrete using NWC were also prepared and reinforced. 18(6) 901-990, A Comparative Study of Concrete Properties Using Coconut Shell And Palm Kernel Shell As Coarse Aggregate, Olanipekun, E.A., Oluda, K.O. compressive strength of concrete. Number of specimens was over 800 received from various construction projects of controlled concrete quality and tested by the Hawler Construction Laboratories (HCLabs) in Erbil, Kurdistan Compressive Strength of Concrete Cubes - Lab Test & Procedure Olanipekun, E.A., Oluda, K.O. Compressive Strength Because concrete is an excellent material for resisting compressive loading, it is used in dams, founda-tions, columns, arches and tunnel linings where the principal loading is in compression. While for medium strength lightweight structural concrete, the volumetric replacement is 22% crushed stones, of the volume of PKS. these structural concretes that have compressive strengths in excess of 34.47MPa. Concrete compressive strength for general construction varies from 15 MPa (2200 psi) to 30 MPa (4400 psi) and higher in commercial and industrial structures. approximately 6.89 to 17.24 Mpa. The particle size analysis are given in Table 1. specimens were kept in a room at normal tem, 3.1. x��\T�Wھw��!�(�|8B4([�E��0�3Lf2EĨ!UCbz/��B�0�`z�=��n���f7���l�D��{�yM9�Ξ����.� Keywords: Concrete, Rate of loading, Correction Factor, Cube Test, Strength I. !��x�M�ԑ%E���;��r4�v�p�`��Y��K�Ĩ�FBn�R�a���B�E���Ԗ�Ώ�����Җ���JD� ��ML(���Ə� ���P�1Vo�3SjaS9��$��cC��J�3�xI]eEn^^���r+S�ձ��8���h��}i���0�iu�Wօ�v4�6Wvwo ���Z+Bc7|��!�B���B+�U/x�E�Y���:o����{�����PR q M�g-�7����S}9��T4��ZRGeC4�Eiqa}�Ԡj�,���⚁� �<5U� ��u-9��Fc�8d_����F�\���hQlwu[+*(o�u�� A total of 63 cubes were tested. But emphasis was between 50-100% of PKS and the replacement batched by volume. WHY is Compressive Strength Determined? Falade et al. The PKSC beams exhibited higher deflection under constant load until failure, compared to NWC beams that failed in brittle manner without warning. The compressive strength of lightweight concrete using palm kernel shell (pks) and periwinkle shell (pws) is reported. All rights reserved. CONCRETE CYLINDERS A ND CORES Rev. Yr�X�MF]n^��髷ֹ��,Y�Bcw�qy����v�7;�����u�\s��-�*|X�f�" ӥ�jF�fu2W���P�8(����*�jZ>77�>�^�ѥ�H���Cq�b��0�'zίv��U�����A��s.W��sa3!�6�Y�1Bb�QguY�XC�����T���V�X��,�ӳY%�����J!��j.�ʱ� density, concrete mix design and the curing age of lightweight concrete were considered. Compressive Strength of Concrete IS 456 Interpretation of Test Results of Sample specified Grade Mean of the Group of 4 Non-Overlapping Consecutive Test Results In N/mm2 Individual Test Results In N/mm2 (1) (2) (3) M 20 > fck + 0.825 X established SD > fck -3 N/mm2 or above (rounded off to nearest 0.5 N/ mm2) Or fck + 3 N/mm2, whichever is greater The bond between the concrete matrix also decreased as the temperature increased. ����ť,.aq1��X\���8�Ź,�a����,�b���L[Ylaq��Y�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�X��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G�G�G�G�mG�mG�mG�mG�mG�mG�mG�mG�mG��T���șܙ�#�@�P����i�. ► Proposed equation predicts modulus of elasticity within ±1.5 kN/mm2 of test results. Conf. Concrete design was done according to British Building Research (BRE) method. which were LC20/22 and LC35/38. Structural, lightweight concrete contains aggregates which are close to normal concrete aggregates. The. Purpose of this Test. Designing a concrete structure requires the concrete compressive strength to be used. Concrete has relatively high compressive strength, but significantly lower tensile strength. Strength of concrete was determined by testing. 0 1 1. Some applications use higher strengths, greater than 10,000 psi (70 MPa). ?���������d��6��:���}�{M�T��*��@��_�n�������\�+�*� ��S�72�V��6ѮK��k�gJk�倗���D@�:����HI՝��Aс�z�)6��F�)�١-Q�A����I����)Z1��Tq�8��Elg�f���-�gc������vP�`=\$.��˰.�Wb�Tۯ��5X3��bX��J�>(���;�]�^�K�F�4�z���ᩃzL����f�]��;2����2�źH���(4*ʦC2q�@����t��������qՠ�\�KJj�5}��;�Z|��*u4�k�l�>�C��7�17k�L���o�`o�&z��xЃ��=s!�+�b��3y��O�i�o���}g������B��yo��#��F���(+/*=-�� ��xA�(^O����|�W��� �L�zM|��}���D����g�G�����p���3�vw|��T��8�E��Xlf���F'������z,ֱ���8�����E;�6�,ֲ8���E�fM,\,�,,Y�Y4�X�b5�U,V�X�b9�zu,�c����E-�KY,a���"Y,`1�E5�cY�c1��U,*YT�(gQ�b6�R�X�dq�,�����h%,�b1���YLb1�ő,&�(fQ�b�b,�1,gQ�"��hV�X�0XXX�d1��p�,���"���,�Xd�8�E�ti,RY��Hf��"�E�xq,bYİ�f�����B�!�Y�g���O,~d���?Y���,�g��oY|��k_����,>g���g,>e�w���������_X|���,���C�Y|��}�x��;,�f�G`��߳��7Y���u��x��+,^f��Y���yϱx��3,�f��'Y��x��#,f��Y�X����Ž,�aq7��,�,zY�X���Nw���E��X���7���ō,n`q=��X\�b�kXlgq5��X\�� have been used. Calculation The measured compressive strength of the cubes shall be calculated by divid ing the maximum load Int. International Journal of Engineering Sciences, State-of-the-Art Report on High-Strength, High-Durability Structural Low-Density Concrete for Applications in Severe Marine Environments, Ductility behaviour of reinforced palm kernel shell concrete beams, Behaviour of lightweight concrete containing periwinkle shells at elevated temperature. Mahar Affandi and W.M.H. *�D�9<2 ��J�N$�@�1�>�A��(Hu*��|d�%���KQ+����J��Dn��f���� 30mm-60mm. The specified design slump was between The tests are required to determine the strength of concrete and therefore its suitability for the job. INTRODUCTION Compressive strength of concrete is determined by testing concrete cubes of size 150mm x 150 mm x 150 mm. The concrete is of grade 30 and the reinforced concrete beams of size 150 mm x 250 mm x 2100 mm were prepared to study the structural behavior. the compressive strength of concrete. Nakshabandi, S.N.A. available and affordable by the low income groups in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. the compressive strength of concrete by partially replacing the cement in concrete production. %X]e�Dk���R�Yd�Q�X,�-�u&u7XqNaAՉ\IKѬB}���uy/����R[ ,�����?~s`��r�U?��N��͟�Dz�p��G��HxT�6j9��s� ���PuՇ��C���z9���\�4L;Ō.P*��ΰN�{[! The results showed that, compressive and tensile strengths decrease as PKS and PS content increases, which allow specific area to increase, thus requiring more cement paste to bond effectively with the shells. 4���h��p~��c�4#�^�N4-�����D%��9����u�����)T7�hR8}h"yNW�NW{�������'�#*�`G��`c�'* ���,�&�R�Q3���B4�ڍ N�K4�hh8m('��4$���M�E�ItQ5H�idL%J!J&J"�D�L c. Research of Suface Hardness and Compressive Strength of Concrete respectively, when compared with the expected characteristic strengths. Concrete continues to gain strength for many years when moisture is provided by rainfall and other environmental sources. The clinker has changed into permanent state, which is no longer a bio-material after undergone high temperature burning process. Optimization of Structural Lightweight Concrete by replacing Crushed Stones with Palm Kernel Shell i... Assessment of Manufactured Sand in Concrete Produced with Palm Kernel Shells as Coarse Aggregate. Using Coconut Shell And Palm Kernel Shell As Coarse Aggregate, Building Environment, 2008, Assume a slab at our site is designed to cast M25 grade of concrete, but we could not define its strength in the semi-solid state. In other words we can say concrete is made up of sand,ballast, cement and water It is recommended that the mix-ratio should be altered to get higher values of compressive strength; and both PKS and PS should be used for lightweight concretes. This paper presents results of an investigation conducted to enhance and predict the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of palm kernel shell concrete (PKSC). Excessive usage of materials is causing fast depletion of natural stone deposit. The strengths obtained were in the range of those reported in the standards for lightweight concretes. ► Sand content influenced both modulus of elasticity and compressive strength. Microstructure and Corrosion Behaviour of Medium Carbon Steel. Wan Zainal Abiddin Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Pulau Pinang ABSTRACT Concrete, the most common material in the construction industry, is regarded as a composite material composed of water, cement, fine and coarse aggregates. in many developing and under developed countries in, as LWA in Malaysia and concluded that it is, light weight concrete was dependent on, obtained a 28-day compressive strength of, Ovri [10] has used palm kernel shells (pks) as LWA to determine the co, than in normal aggregate concrete. Further, the increase in sand content coupled with reduction in PKS content enhanced the compressive strength and static MOE: The highest MOE recorded in this investigation, 11 kN/mm2, was twice that previously published. The coarse aggregate portion was solely PKS, batched by volume. The other advantage for PKSC beams was deflection. Each beam was tested under two-point loading for flexure until failure. Compressive Strength (N/mm 2) Avg. To obtain good concrete, the placing of an appropriate Compressive Strength Test on Concrete Cubes: A Review N.B. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication. Compressive strength as per American Codes. Compressive Strengths Of Concrete" Accepted for presentation at 3 rd ASRES Congress on Research Article Prediction of Compressive Strength of Concrete Using Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Programming PalikaChopra, 1 RajendraKumarSharma, 1 andManeekKumar 2 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, apar University, Patiala , India �2� �A��lAW��c*̒>�Ժ'�괎��Pr�j����ǩ3"1�I�ƪ�'!���ھ����y�^��Y�/�0E�.,lQ�}�!��p���C�������� (_q���F%~k�;W�v!�_(���w�.ܩ���#��(N��\�7�[EHo��kgt�H2�'b�aB���߳�&�/:e��B��2X���? Otherwise, the compressive strength of concrete is defined as the maximum crushing stress endured by the concrete. the suitable dumping sites. higher values for the periwinkle and lower for the palm kernel. The strength as a function of aggregates ,age, and density were investigated. syZuy�.�R=����8kuM� EngineeringDetermination of the mechanical strength of plain concrete. The parameters that were measured are: compressive strength, density and bond characteristics of the concrete matrix. The strength differences were 26.8% and 48.7% for LC22 and LC38 Further, the effect of varying sand and PKS contents and mineral admixtures (silica fume and fly ash) on compressive strength and MOE was investigated. For comparison, four reinforced normal weight concrete (NWC) beams were also cast. Compressive strength of concrete depends on many factors such as water-cement ratio, cement strength, quality of concrete material, quality control during the production of concrete, etc. Higher concrete strains for the reinforcement in the PKSC shows stronger bond between PKSC and the reinforcement. The specimens used in the study were made of concrete with a varied cube compressive strength from 18 to 55MPa. The range of acceleration values varied from 0.7 m/s 2 to 136.4 m/s 2 and compressive proportional to the densities developed with respect to time. ► Infilling of pores by mineral admixtures was evident. 400 LWC bridges throughout the world especially in the USA and Canada. Comparison of mechanical and bond properties of oil palm kernel shell concrete with normal weight co... Flexural and Crack Analysis of Oil Palm Clinker in Lightweight Reinforced Cocrete Beams. Wastes as Aggregates, Procs. This research was conducted on a set of low and medium strength concrete, This article reports on a research carried out to assess the effects of manufactured sand in concrete, produced with palm 1.0. Effect of Aggregates on the compressive strength of lightweight concrete, The compressive strength of the concrete was determined using the relation [10], Table 2: The Compressive Strengths of the Concrete Using Periwinkle and Palm Kerne, Shells with Age, Concrete Mix Ratio and Density, Figure 3: The Compressive Strength of light Weight Concrete Using Periwinkle and, Palm Kernel Shell as a Function of Age (a) 1:2:4 Concrete Mix (b) 1:21/2:4, mix showed the same trend i.e. recorded. Asymptotic strength σ ∞ can be regarded as the genuine characteristic compressive strength of concrete.. Engineering and Applications, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia,2018, 19-21, The formation of aluminium reinforced with glass and polymers composite are currently being investigated.The micro- structural and fracture behaviour are being investigated. Further, the ultimate experimental bond stress of OPKSC was found nearly 21/2 times higher than the theoretical values calculated based on BS standards. It is concluded that both PKSC and PSC satisfied the compressive strength and tensile strength requirement of light weight concrete, although PS has better gradation and bonding to cement than PKS. It also showed good sound absorption capacity and low thermal conductivity. Experimental loads were found higher than the design loads for all the tested beams. replacement portion applicable to both LC22 and LC38 was 32%. Available literature indicates that research works have not been carried out in this area. %PDF-1.5 %���� 1 0 obj <> endobj 3 0 obj <> endobj 4 0 obj <> stream The bond stress of the OPKSC was found about 86% of the corresponding NWC; however, there was no slip failure between OPKSC and the reinforcement. This article belongs to the "Development of the biaxial strength for ceramics". Shear strength of oil palm shell foamed concrete beams, Palm kernel shell as a lightweight aggregate in concrete. The standard deviation serves as the basis for control of variability in the test results of concrete for the same batch of concrete. Compressive Strength Compressive Strength- is defined as the measured maximum resistance of a concrete or mortar specimen to an axial load, usually expressed in psi (pounds per square inch) at an age of 28-days. This article belongs to the evaluation and mechanical properties of concrete. FINAL REPORT EVALUATION OF CONCRETE CHARACTERISTICS FOR RIGID PAVEMENTS D. S. Lane Senior Research Scientist INTRODUCTION For rigid pavements, the Virginia Department of Transportation's (VDOT) 1993 Road and Bridge Specifications (VDOT 1993) specified that the concrete have a 28-day compressive strength of 20.7 MPa (3,000 psi) (20 MPa in the 1997 edition), a minimum … www.crl.issres.net Vol. Four reinforced oil palm shell foamed concrete (OPSFC) beams were fabricated, and their shear behaviour was tested. It also discusses different types of … Concrete compressive strength for general construction varies from 15 MPa (2200 psi) to 30 MPa (4400 psi) and higher in commercial and industrial structures. This paper covers, briefly, the purpose of compressive strength of concrete test cubes, parameters, which can affect the compression strength of concrete, also some basic and advanced apparatus required for the test and the precautions for the test. The structural grade palm kernel shell concrete, a lightweight concrete (LWC) produced using palm kernel shell (PKS) an agricultural waste and by-product of the production of palm oil as lightweight aggregate, referred to hereafter as PKSC. Strength is usually determined by means of test cylinders made of fresh concrete … After preparing the ends, a compressive axial load will be applied to the samples at a continuous rate until failure occurs. !��_�>&��P�#*��J"��h7�}@�>�#z������T��[�!ǁ~��;�7����D��J.��LƗ�^$z��yry��Y2>C�4�SDO=A��S�1�G�����"�D�O�����M�3�=g� ����"����ۉz�ng㼖�R�[�n����n$���z�눮%�At �NQ�&���$���r�˨��T���b����B�r��TwѹD�m#:��β�Ng5�N#:5��:���p� ���a,O Two concrete classes were designed and The fracture behaviou. Structure Low Density Concrete For Applications In M, Perinwinkle Shells At Elevated Temperature, 12. It is became fitting to state that, for low and medium strength lightweight concrete, a unified volumetric quantity of crushed stones to adopt in combination with PKS is concrete production is 22.5%. Table 1: particle size analysis of the coarse aggregates, ASTM Specification C330-82a: American Socie, ASTM Specification C332-83: American Society of. The variables are: mix proportion, water/cement ratio, curing age and temperature. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). The addition of silica fume enhanced the compressive strength and thus OPKSC produced 28-day compressive strength up to 37 MPa. �/�����:�bY�����w�N6rwN�E��G(��RP�]�l Using ANN, the multi-dimensional six acceleration readings were given as input and the same mapped to a single output of concrete strength. Natural sand was replaced by manufactured sand (Msand) at 25% intervals, batched by volume till it got to 100% fine In addition, mineral admixtures, 10% of silica fume and 5% fly ash, Oil palm clinker is made from waste burning of oil palm shell and the fibrous material in oil palm mill. The flexural behavior of under-reinforced concrete beams of grade 30 concrete has been studied and the results are compared with NWC beams which were also designed as grade 30 and under-reinforced similar to that of the PKSC beams. This implies that PS is best suited as replacement for granite in lightweight concrete than PKS. The results shows the provision can be conservatively used to design the lightweight oil palm clinker concrete beam reinforced with deformed bar. Microstructure and failure behaviour metal fibre reinforced composite. The OPKSC produced a density reduction of about 20% compared to NWC. �GdP;�H�DÉr����- %� [B�M�,�L2F�A�NuiD�dL!J&J��D��x��#�%� ]�]�"2��D%I$4�~���E��OD?���R��}O�]8��m8�� ��&���K���J��!���>%�;? difference with the bulk densities of the 1:2:4 and 1:21/2:4. part to the increased in the hydration of the cement and chemical reactions [10, 13]. Prediction of compressive strength of concrete from early age test result M. Monjurul Hasan & Ahsanul Kabir Department of Civil Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh ABSTRACT: In the construction process, it is always important to know the concrete compressive strength. Two beams were cast with shear reinforcements while the other two were cast without such reinforcements. [11] looked at the behaviour of LWC. • Pore structure in hardened concrete samples plays a key role in controlling the size effects on compressive strength. Forty cubes and 40 cylinders each were produced with PKS and PS as replacement materials for granite. 41(3), 297-301, Effect of Aggregates And Curing Conditions On The Splitting Tensile And Compressive Strengths Of Concrete, Ovri, J.E.O. Compressive strength of concrete depends on many factors such as water-cement ratio, cement strength, quality of concrete material, quality control during production of concrete etc. Therefore, the equation used to calculate ultimate load is safe and satisfactory. The compressive strength and tensile strength of the 28-day PKSC with 100% replacement were 4.33 N/mm2 and 3.68 N/mm2 respectively; that of PSC at 100% replacement were 5.89 N/mm2 and 4.95 N/mm2 respectively; and granite concrete without any replacement were 25.11 N/mm2 and 11.74 N/mm2 respectively. Standard deviation for concrete is the method to determine the reliability between the compressive strength results of a concrete batch. produced, namely, The comparison of the fresh, mechanical and bond properties of grade 30 lightweight concrete, namely oil palm kernel shell concrete (OPKSC) with normal weight concrete (NWC) of similar strength is presented in this paper. and 18.22 N/mm2 Compressive Strength (MPa) 1 3 days 2 3 4 7 days 5 6 7 28 days 8 9 Table 1 : Recordings during Compressive Test on Concrete 6. Compressive strength of concrete is one of its most important engineering properties. Series of tests were conducted to determine their performances. Surface Hardness and Compressive Strength of Concrete - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Several lightweight oil palm clinker concrete beams were designed and tested according to British standard Code of Practices. Keywords: Concrete, Curing methods, Density, Compressive strength. #$��Pպ��ʆ Msand concrete strength test results. Statistical concepts described are applicable for the analysis of other common concrete test results, including flexural The strength of concrete is tested on site using manually operated CTM. In case of American codes, compression strength is defined in terms of cylinder strength fc’. International Journal of Physical Sciences. (i) Pack of Periwinkle (ii) Side view of a periwinkle, particle size analysis of the coarse aggregates, All figure content in this area was uploaded by James Ejenike Ogagorojo Ovri, The Compressive Strength of Light Weight C, (Received 28 July, 2019; accepted 2 January, 2020), ___________________________________________, _____________________________________________. Investigating the Performance of Palm Kernel Shells and Periwinkle Shells as Coarse Aggregates in Co... Enhancement and prediction of modulus of elasticity of palm kernel shell concrete. Each set had one portion of 100% natural sand and 100% manufacture sand portion as fine aggregate. Large quantities of various sizes of oil palm clinker wastes have become disposal constraints. Nine concrete mixes were prepared, and tests on static and dynamic moduli of elasticity and compressive strength were conducted.The SEM result showed presence of large number of micro-pores on PKS. Characteristic strength of the concrete is designated as the compressive strength of a concrete sample that has been cured for 28 days and is determined by the Higher strengths up to and exceeding 10,000 psi (70 MPa) are specified for certain applications. and Mahmud, H.. Jumaat, M.Z., Alengaram, U.J. Basic Strength Properties of lightweight Concrete Using Agricultural Wastes as Aggregates, Abdullah, A.A., Basic Strength Properties of lightweight Concrete Using Agricultural Figure 1: (i) Pack of Periwinkle (ii) Side view of a periwinkle, Figure 2: Palm Kernel Shell of Various Sizes (a) Pks of all sizes (b) Pks of 2.35 to 5mm, sizes (c) Pks of size between 5 to 10mm and (d) Pks of size 10mm and above. CTM, either electronic or manually operated are used for this purpose. The experimental results indicated that the shear capacities of OPSFC beams without shear links are higher than those of the NWC beams and exhibit more flexural and shear cracks. 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